M. S. Bassi, O. S. Olonitola, I. A. Abu-Aguye, S. A. Ado



thanol (70 %) extract of Annona senegalensis (Pers) leaves and the n-hexane fraction, ethyl acetate fraction, butanol fraction and residual fraction were prepared and evaluated for their antibacterial activity at 20 mg/ml against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Staphyloccocus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis (clinical isolates) and Escherichia coli ATGC25922 and Bacillus cereus NCIV6 using the agar well diffusion method. The antibiotics Augmentin and ampiclox were used as positive control while dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) was used as negative control. The ethyl acetate fraction showed zone of inhibition against all the test bacteria (Escherichia coli-11.5 mm, Staphyloccocus aureus-11.5 mm, Salmonella typhi -13.0 mm, Bacillus subtilis -17.0 mm, standard Escherichia coli ATGC25922-11.5 mm and standard Bacillus cereus NCIV6-15.5 mm). Ampiclox produced a zone of inhibition of more than 11 mm against all the organisms except Salmonella typhi and Staphyloccocus aureus while Augmentin produced zone of inhibition of more than 11 mm against all except Salmonella typhi. The negative control, DMSO, and the aqueous fraction, n-hexane, butanol and residual fractions showed no activity. The ethanol extract showed activity against Bacillus subtilis (13.5 mm) and Bacillus cereus NCIV6 (15.5 mm) with minimum inhibitory concentration of 2 mg/ml and have a bacteriostatic effect. The ethyl acetate fraction had a minimum inhibitory concentration of 2 mg/ml against all the test bacteria and showed a bactericidal effect against B. subtilis, S. aureus and B. cereus NCIV6 (all Gram- positive bacteria) and bacteriostatic effect against S. typhi and Escherichia coli (clinical isolate) and Escherichia coli ATGC25922 (all Gram- negative bacteria). The study indicated that extract of Annona senegalensis leaves possesses some antibacterial activity, especially against Gram positive bacteria and the ethyl acetate fraction possess the most broad and bactericidal activity thus validating  the use of the leaves of the plant in traditional medicine to treat some infections.

Keywords:  Annona senegalensis, leaf extract fractions, antibacterial activity

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