EXTRACTION AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF CASHEW NUT SHELL LIQUID (CNSL) - A POTENTIAL DEFOAMER IN PAINT FORMULATION

F. M. Alabi, L. Lajide, O. Ayodele, O. Idoko

Abstract


There is a growing need for local sourcing of alternative raw materials from agricultural sources to replace synthetic ones obtained from the petrochemical industry because of environmental concerns coupled with the high cost of importation of these raw materials. In this study, the physicochemical properties of extracted Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL) as a defoamer was studied in comparison with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), a synthetic defoamer and Linseed oil, a non-synthetic one. The cashew nut shell were extracted by soxhlet apparatus using hexane as the extracting solvent, and analyzed using standard methods. The results show relatively comparative properties in the extracted CNSL and PDMS and Linseed oil. The refractive index was 1.53 compared to 1.4 and 1.47 of PDMS and Linseed oil; viscosity of 38.5 mPa.s which falls within the acceptable range of PDMS for industrial application; specific gravity of 0.99 g/cm3 to 1.04 g/cm3 and 0.93 g/cm3 of PDMS and Linseed oil, respectively. The saponification and Iodine values for linseed oil were 188 mgKOH/g and 170 Wijs while 105.85 MgKOH/g and 121 Wijs were reported for the extracted CNSL. The GC-MS analysis identified six (6) different compounds in the mass spectrum consisting of mono-unsaturated, di-unsaturated, saturated cardanol and saturated cardol. These compounds could be responsible for its comparative properties with PDMS and Linseed oil as alternative defoamer.


Keywords: Cashew nut shell liquid, defoamer, polydimethylsiloxane, paint formulation


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